How to investigate and make diagnosis for Prostate Cancer?
For proper diagnosis of prostate cancer, doctors may need to perform one or more of the following examinations:
- Digital rectal examination – the doctor will insert his gloved finger into the patient’s rectum to check for any abnormal enlargement or hardening.
- Blood test – patients suffering from prostate cancer, inflammation of prostate or benign prostate enlargement may have raised level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA).
- Ultrasound scan and biopsy–a small ultrasound probe will be inserted into the rectum to measure the size and detect abnormality of the prostate. Tissue samples can also be obtained through needle biopsies for further microscopic examination.
- Endoscope examination of the bladder etc
Once the diagnosis of prostate cancer is confirmed, the following additional tests may be needed in some patients:
- Bone X-ray and/or bone scan
- Pelvic computer tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging scan (MRI)
- Chest X-ray