How to investigate and make diagnose for Bladder Cancer? (Part 1)
Bladder Cancer

Transurethral Removal of Bladder Tumour – TURBT

The doctor uses the cystocope to remove the bladder tumor inside the inner lining of the bladder, and uses a small amount of electricity to cauterize the wound to stop the bleedings. For a few days after the surgery, the patient may experience hae-maturia.



Should cancer cells have eroded the bladder muscle, the doctor will consider removing parts of the bladder or the whole of it. It is then necessary to create a stoma at the patient's abdomen to let the urine pass through. Some patients may create an artificial bladder out of their intestines. At present, this operation can be performed in the form of minimally invasive surgery, replacing a big wound with a few small holes.


If it is decided that the whole bladder to be removed, the male patient has to have his prostate gland, part of the urethra and the lymphatic glands near the bladder removed. The female patient may have her uterus, cervix, the nearby lymphatic and part of the urehtra removed.


Artificial Storing of Urine

After the removal of the bladder, the doctor will at once try to create a place for storing urine. Depending on the conditions of the patient, the following methods can be considered:


  • Stoma

The commonest way is to create an artificial uninary outlet by cutting a part of the intestine and using one of its end to connect the two urethras and the other end protruding out of the abdomen wall. The outlet on the abdomen wall is called a stoma, where a waterproof plastic bag will be fixed with some special glue for collecting urine. The stoma will not form an obstacle to the patient’s normal life, but will affect the patient’s look.


  • bladder reconstruction surgery

Another method is to make an artificial bladder by cutting a certain length of the intestine. The doctor then reshapes the intestine part into a ball shape bag. He then sews it to the top of the urethra. Thus a new bladder is created and connected to the ureter. The patient can urinate through the urethra as usual, without having to use urine bag.


As the nerves of the patient’s bladder are no longer functioning, he/she may suffer a slight urinary incontinence, especially when he/she is sleeping. After the operation, the male patient may become impotent while the female patient may experience differently during sexual intercourse.


  • Urinary Catheter Operation

This is similar to that of the stoma. A length of the patient’s intestine is used to make a urine bag which is then placed inside the abdomen. It is connected to a small plastic catheter which passes throguh the stoma, thus allowing the urine to emit. Urine can be relieved 4 to 5 times daily. The patient has to emit the urine manually, but he will not have to carry a urine bag.